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Showing posts with label Water Purification. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Water Purification. Show all posts

Saturday, August 6, 2016

Purify Water Using Chemical Treatments

Water purification tablets are a great back up form of water treatment. They are excellent Bug Out Bags and survival kits because they are light weight and inexpensive. Water purification tablets are also great to store in your vehicle or your bug out location to disinfect water on demand.  If the water supply I am drawing from is extremely shady I combine both a filter and the tablets to ensure my safety. Also, be aware that water purification tablets have a shelf life. Check the expiration dates on your tablets and replace any that are expired.

Water purification can come in tablet or droplet form. The tablet form is better because it is a lighter weight that droplets and easy to use when in a stressful situation.

Two water born pathogens that commonly found in untreated water- Cryptosporidium and Giardia.

Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan protozoans that can cause gastrointestinal illness with diarrhea in humans. According to the CDC it is one of the most frequent causes of waterborne disease among humans in the United States. In a disaster situation where government maintained services are effected, it is highly likely that this protozoa parasite will find its way into our water supply.

Giardia attached to the wall of the small intestines. Giardia is also an infectious protozoa and it is a big deal in emergency preparedness because it can have such a dramatic effect on your health. The symptoms of Giardia, may begin to appear 2 days after infection, include violent diarrhea, excess gas, stomach or abdominal cramps, upset stomach, and nausea. 

The typical infection within an individual can be slight, resolve without treatment in about 2–6 weeks, although sometimes longer and sometimes the infection is more severe requiring immediate medical attention. 

There are three main types of water purification tablets on the market (Chlorine (NaDCC), Iodine and Chlorine Dioxide) . Not all are equal as each one has its strengths and weaknesses. Choose the purification tablet that works the best with your situation and location.

Chlorine Dioxide Tablets (Potable Aqua, Katadyn and Aquamira Brands). Even though the word “chlorine” is in the name, chlorine dioxide is neither iodine nor chlorine. It uses a highly active form of oxygen to purify water so it leaves absolutely zero taste. As a nice bonus the action of chlorine dioxide causes a lot of sediment to drop out of suspension (fall to the bottom) leaving the container of water more clear and further improving flavor. Chlorine dioxide tablets are a good choice for those allergic to iodine, with thyroid problems, or on lithium. Always follow product usage instructions.

Chlorine NaDCC Tablets (Potable Aqua, Oasis Plus, Aquatabsand Rothco’s Military “Chlor-Floc“ Brands). NaDCC, also known as sodium dichloroisocyanurate or sodium troclosene, is a form of chlorine used for disinfection. NaDCC tablets are different and improved over the older chlorine based (halazone) tablets. When added to water, NaDCC releases hydrochloric acid which reacts through oxidization with microorganisms and kills them. Many tablets advertise no chlorine after taste. Unopened NaDCC tablets have a shelf life of 3-5 years, if opened they should be discarded after 3 months. Always follow product usage instructions. 

Iodine Tablets (Potable Aqua,Coleman, and Coghlans brands). Iodine Tablets use iodine to purify contaminated water. Most iodine purification tablets tend to leave a funny taste to the water and some discoloration, however vitamin C or ascorbic acid can be added after the treatment time to improve the taste and remove the color. This often comes in the form of two bottles with two separate tablets. Iodine water treatment has been proven to be somewhat effective against Giardia and not effective against Crytosporidium.  Always follow product usage instructions. 

Thursday, October 23, 2014

Water: Finding, Collecting, and Treating for Survival

Here is a very useful and informative article I recently read on website. The link is list here:

Finding, Collecting, and Treating for Survival such as a Zombie Outbreak or major earthquake, local water sources may become tainted, unavailable, or inaccessible. City waterworks may be damaged and stop pumping the precious fluid to our homes, businesses, parks, etc. But even if the water supply becomes tainted or is difficult to access, with a little care and patience you can collect enough to survive and use it safely.


Accessing water might not be as simple as turning on a tap, but you’d be surprised at the number of locations you can find it, if you take the time to look.

Rural Areas: Homes in rural areas often have wells or creeks on or near their property, giving them easy-to-access and likely safe water supplies. Other water sources in rural areas include, but are not limited to: watering troughs, silos, rain collection barrels, and man-made or naturally occurring ponds.

Urban Areas: There are plenty of places to collect water from in the city, even if the local waterworks have been shut off. Hoses, rain barrels, buckets, natural water sources, public fountains, old tires, water heaters, and toilet tanks are just a few of the many places water may be hiding out in an urban environment.

Wherever and whenever you might be looking for water it’s important to keep your eyes open and be creative. Next time you’re out and about, take a look around you and see if you can spot at least two alternate sources for a bit of the wet stuff. And remember that you must filter and purify ALL found water before consumption.


The most basic method for collecting water comes in the form of transfer from one source or container to another. This can be done a number of ways, but typically the use of a bucket or other pail-like device is recommended. You should never siphon water with your mouth and a hose from an unfiltered or untreated source, you are just as likely to become ill by doing this, as you are by direct and intentional consumption. Using a pump siphon to transfer water for treatment later is a fantastic and relatively easy way to move large amounts of water fast.

Always draw from the clearest and cleanest source that you can, and NEVER use water that has inorganic materials floating on the surface, is dark or oddly colored, has any odor at all, or shows any other signs of possible contamination. But if there is just a bit of dirt or sand in the water it should be fine after a little care is taken.

UrbanMan's note: Your survival kit should always contain collapsible expedient water containers.


Unless you want to pay an uncomfortable, and possibly deadly price for drinking even just a few gulps of tainted water, it’s always better to be safe than sorry. All found water, unless from a sealed and reliable source, needs to be both filtered and treated before consumption.

Filter: You will need to remove as much dirt and debris as possible from the water before moving on to the next step. If the water is cloudy it’s best to let it settle naturally over the course of 12 – 24 hours, but you may be in a rush and pouring it through a coffee filter, handkerchief, or other fine material, into a clean container will work as well. Make sure to change and/or clean any filters you use as they begin to show signs of contamination or discoloration.

The water should now be safe to use for washing clothes and gear, but not for drinking, personal care, bathing, or cleaning cookware, you’ve got another step before that.

The use of a well-made commercial filter allows you to skip the next step and go directly to consumption. Incredibly useful and capable of filtering 100s of gallons before the filter needs to be replaced we recommend the Katadyn Hiker Pro for those of you with the available income.


Treatment is a crucial step in the purifying process and should never be skipped. Now that you’ve filtered your water and it isn’t cloudy anymore, you’ll need to kill any germs left-over that may be in the water. Treatment by boiling or with bleach are the most widely agreed upon methods to safely purify questionable water, and luckily you only have to do one or the other before it’s safe to drink.

Boiling: Evaporation during boiling can be a problem if you don’t have a covered container, and the need for fuel can make this a tricky task for some. But while this method has it’s drawbacks, it remains highly effective when done properly.

All questionable water should be boiled for no less that 3 – 5 minutes for proper sanitation, but a period of 10 minutes is the best way to guarantee safe consumption (because boiling water at high altitudes takes longer, you need to add 1 minute of boil time for every 1000 feet above sea level that you are located). After the water is done boiling, it’s important to let it cool before taking a drink.

Boil treated water can safely be stored in clean and resealable containers for up to one year.

Bleach: A highly effective method, though dangerous if not done properly, bleach is a wonderful tool for treating questionable water. Use plain liquid bleach with no additives or additional ingredients. Never use scented, color safe, powdered, or boosted bleaches when treating water.

To treat water with chlorine bleach, simply place the water into a clean container and add exactly 16 drops for every gallon of water (this is most easily done with an eye-dropper). Stir the mixture well and let it rest for 30 minutes. If the water does not retain a slight bleach smell, repeat the addition of drops per gallon and let it rest for another 15 minutes. If it still does not retain a slight bleach smell, the water is too highly contaminated and will not be usable. At this point, it’s time to get a new batch of water and try again.

•1 quart bottle 4 drops of bleach

•2 liter soda bottle 10 drops of bleach

•1 gallon jug 16 drops of bleach (1/8 tsp)

•2 gallon cooler 32 drops of bleach (1/4 tsp)

•5 gallon bottle 1 teaspoon of bleach

Bleach treated water can safely be stored in clean and resealable containers for up to one year.

Saturday, April 27, 2013

Solar Desalinator - Purifies Contaminated Water

Gary sent a link to and I was wondering if anyone out there had any experience with this solar desalinator?  Same principle as a survival solar still.  Heat from the Sun vaporizes the contaminated water, leaving contaminants at the bottom while the purified condensation collects on the underside of the clear plastic top and runs down to be collected. 

While anyone handy can build much the same device, a couple of kits, one always bagged up for immediate Bug Out or cached someplace, may be a handy and effective way to ensure you have this capability.

Four to six liters of pure water per day would require one or more kits per person in order to produce enough water for daily needs.  Anyway the ad:

Our University of Alabama patented solar desalination product uses no electricity, can be taken anywhere and extracts pure water from any contaminated water source. It removes radiation, fluoride, salt, pesticides, bacteria, dirt and other contaminants from any water. Be prepared for disasters, save hundreds on bottled water and utility bills.Our panel is a desalinator, not just a filter. It removes pure water from the contaminated source, one pure h2o molecule at a time.

The panel water is up to ten times more pure than tap water and up to 700 times more pure than contaminated ground water. Use over and over with no filters to clog and nothing to wear out. our panels are made of UV-stabilized, FDA-compliant, food-grade plastic to give you years of trouble-free use.

You already know how important water is to your emergency kit, and you may already have reserve water with your food and other preparedness gear, at least enough for a few days or weeks. But what about for months and years? And how much water weight can you carry if you need to take the show on the road? Can you be sure you’ll have water pressure at your tap if you need it most to fill up emergency water containers? Is that well or stream water contaminated? Do you have the equipment to remove radioactive isotopes and fallout from your water? Is your regular water filter enough? Water filters are the time-tested preparedness tool, and they work great for short-term use, but they often need a steady supply of replacement components and they can’t remove salt, arsenic and other dissolved contaminants.

When the contaminants are in solution with the water, they slip through even the best filters. To make the most difficult water sources drinkable you’ll need a full-fledged desalination system, but those are usually power-hungry, they foul with the wrong kind of contaminants, or they require single-use chemical pouches. If you live near the ocean, you’ll need a way to convert seawater into drinking water with robust reliability. If you have access to contaminated surface water, you’ll need a way to remove pesticides, arsenic, fluoride and chemicals that are in solution with the water, and which can’t be filtered. There’s a better, long-term, robust solution for your emergency kit! It can convert any contaminated source into pure, delicious drinking water for you and your family for months and years into the unknown using only sunlight.

No replacement filters, no chemicals, batteries, or parts to worry about sourcing into the unknown. Everything you’ll need for years-worth and thousands of gallons of water making is in a single lightweight bag.

Tuesday, April 5, 2011

Survival Bug In Water Purification System - Just Water Complete Bucket System

If you are like me you probably have all sorts of water purification devices, from Survival Water Purification Straws (I have Aqua-Mira Frontier Pros), to Water Purification canteens (Aqua Mira Water Bottle System) to larger water pumps with purification filters (I currently have two Katadyn filters). I even have a couple of the water purification pitchers with replaceable filters. Yup. Can't live without water.

As a survival skill we all should know how to purify water using common chemicals such as bleach or providine iodine; through boiling; and through field expedient cloth-sand-charcoal filters, although having water purification tablets or drops (Aqua Mira Water Purifier Tablets and Drops are also in my kit) are other necessary items.

I just became aware of another handy water purification item, called the "Just Water, Complete Bucket System".

The base complete kit costs $ 47.45 - $ 57.50, the higher price if you want the arsenic filter. Replacement filters are $21.25 to $32.80 note: the filters are manufactured by Winfield and Black Jack Industries

The Company says they invented this to provide clean, drinkable water to disaster devastated areas, the Texas Baptist Men initiated the development of a practical, inexpensive, but very effective, ceramic water filter. They call it the “Just Water, Ceramic Drip-Filter.”

This water filter kits is described, from the Company, as, "A ceramic, .2 micron water filter. The micron removes water-borne bacterium. The inside of the filter is loaded with different media or ingredients, such as man-made carbons, mother nature carbons and man-made resins. Those different resins and carbons remove the different contaminants in the water."

"Once you start using the filter, the activated carbon is only good for 6 to 8 months. The anti-bacterial ceramic wall will work indefinitely. The media inside (such as the activated carbon) will pack over time. The filter needs to be shaken to unpack the media. The shelf life of the unit itself is indefinite. The only question in the carbon. Current figures say the unused carbon should have a shelf life between at least 2 or 3 years, if not much more. The sock has an indefinite shelf life. Replacement during use will depend on filthiness of the water source."

The Just Water, Complete Bucket System is advertised as meeting several standards:

National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Standard 42
National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) Standard 53
ISO 9002 Quality Standard
USA AEL Laboratories
USA Analytical Food Laboratories
USA Johns Hopkins University
British 5750 Quality Standard
England’s Water Research council (WRc) Performance Standards

The filtration efficiency is 0.5 micron and capable of removing many contaminants:

>99% Arsenic 5 and 99% Arsenic 3 (special order filter)
>99% Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
>95% Chlorine and Chloramines
>99% Taste
>99% Odor
>98% Aluminum
>96% Iron
>98% Lead
>90% Pesticides
>85% Herbicides
>85% Insecticides
>90% Rodenticides
>85% Phenols
>85% MTBE
>85% Perchlorate
>80% Trihalomethanes
>95% Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons
>99.999% of particles larger than 0.5 micron (Staffordshire University Labs)(includes Anthrax)
>99.7% of particles larger than 0.3 micron (Staffordshire University Labs)
>98% of particles larger than 0.2 micron (Staffordshire University Labs)
>100% Giardia Lamblia
>100% Cyclospora
>100% removal of live Cryptosporidium (WRc Standard)
>100% removal of Cryptosporidium (NSF Standard 53 – A.C. fine dust – 4 log challenge)
>100% removal of E. Coli, Vibrio Cholerae ( Johns Hopkins University )
>99.999% removal of Salmonella Typhil, Shigella Dysenteria, Kiebsiella Terrigena (Hyder Labs)

Product is silver impregnated and will not permit bacteria growth-through (mitosis); provides a hostile environment for all microbiological organisms and will not support their growth; and the Ceramic elements may be cleaned 100 or more times with a soft brush or damp cloth.

Performance Features:
Easy installation
Good flow rate / 14 to 17 gallons a day (gravity flow)
Up to 60-70 gallons per day (pressure flow)
Filter will accept water from floods, lake, rain, well, tap, river or stream
Semi/Annual filter replacement Cleansable with clean damp cloth
Shelf life is extended by shaking filter every 3-4 months to loosen media inside and prevent packing
Once in use, filter will last 6-8 months.

A system like this would be a good idea for a Survival Base Camp, saving your more portable water purification systems for mobile appliciations such as Bug Outs or security patrols.